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Improving a Priori Regional Climate Model Estimates of Greenland I...

By: M. Tedesco; S. M. Bateni; X. Fettweis; S. A. Margulis; P. Alexander; M. Navari

Description: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA. The Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has been the focus of climate studies due to its considerable impact on sea level rise. Accurate estimates of surface mass fluxes would contribute to understanding the cause of its recent unprecedented changes and would help to better estimate the past, current and future contribution of the GrI...

Abdalati, W. and Steffen, K.: Passive microwave derived snow melt regions on the Greenland ice sheet, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 787–790, 1995.; Abdalati, W. and Steffen, K.: Snowmelt on the Greenland ice sheet as derived from passive microwave satellite data, J. Climate, 10, 165–175, 1997.; Abdalati, W. and Steffen, K.: Greenland ice sheet melt extent: 1979–1999, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 33983–33988, doi:10.1029/2001JD900181

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Simulating the Growth of Supra-glacial Lakes at the Western Margin...

By: A. Sundal; S. Palmer; A. A. Leeson; X. Fettweis; A. Shepherd

Description: School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK. We present a method of modelling the growth of supra-glacial lakes at the western margin of the Greenland ice sheet, based on routeing runoff estimated by a Regional Climate Model (RCM) across a digital elevation model (DEM) of the ice sheet surface. Using data acquired during the 2003 melt season, we demonstrate that the model is 18 times more likely to correctly predict the pres...

Box, J. E. and Ski, K.: Remote sounding of Greenland supraglacial melt lakes: implications for subglacial hydraulics, J. Glaciol., 53, 257–265, 2007.; Bamber, J. L., Layberry, R. L., and Gogineni, S.: A new ice thickness and bed data set for the Greenland ice sheet 1. Measurement, data reduction, and errors, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 106, 33773–33780, 2001.; Bartholomew, I. D., Nienow, P., Sole, A., Mair, D., Cowton, T., King, M. A., and Palmer, S.: Seasonal variations in...

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Climatic Signals from 76 Shallow Firn Cores in Dronning Maud Land,...

By: E. Isaksson; E. Schlosser; D. Divine; S. Altnau

Description: Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics, Center for Climate and Cryosphere, University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria. The spatial and temporal distribution of surface mass balance (SMB) and δ18O were investigated in the first comprehensive study of a set of 76 firn cores retrieved by various expeditions during the past three decades in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. The large number of cores was used to calculate stacked re...

Fisher, D., Koerner, R. M., Paterson, W. S. B., Dansgaard, W., Gundestrup, N., and Reeh, N.: Effect of wind scouring on climatic records from ice-core oxygen-isotope profiles, Nature, 301, 205–209, doi:10.1038/301205a0, 1983.; Frezzotti, M., Scarchilli, C., Becagli, S., Proposito, M., and Urbini, S.: A synthesis of the Antarctic surface mass balance during the last 800 yr, The Cryosphere, 7, 303–319, doi:

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Comparison of Automatic Segmentation of Full Polarimetric Sar Sea ...

By: S. Gerland; S. N. Anfinsen; A. P. Doulgeris; N. Hughes; M.-a. N. Moen; T. Eltoft; A. H. H. Renner

Description: Department of Physics and Technology, University of TromsØ, 9037 TromsØ, Norway. In this paper we investigate the performance of an algorithm for automatic segmentation of full polarimetric, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sea ice scenes. The algorithm uses statistical and polarimetric properties of the backscattered radar signals to segment the SAR image into a specified number of classes. This number was determined in advance from visual...

Samadani,~R.: A~finite mixtures algorithm for finding proportions in SAR images, IEEE~T. Image Process., 4, 1182–1186, 1995.; Bogdanov,~A V., Sandven,~S., Johannessen,~O M., Alexandrov,~V Y., and Bobylev,~L P.: Multisensor approach to automated classification of sea ice image data, IEEE~T. Geosci. Remote, % 43, 1648–1663, 2005.; Breivik,~L.-A., Eastwood,~S., Karvonen,~J., Dinessen,~F., Fleming,~A., Hamre,~T., Pedersen,~L T., Saldo,~R., and Buus-Hinkler,~J.: Quality infor...

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Little Ice Age Climate Reconstruction from Ensemble Reanalysis of ...

By: M. P. Lüthi

Description: VAW Glaciology, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland. Mountain glaciers sample a combination of climate parameters – temperature, precipitation and radiation – by their rate of volume accumulation and loss. Flow dynamics acts as transfer function which maps volume changes to a length response of the glacier terminus. Long histories of terminus positions have been assembled for several glaciers in the Alps. Here I analyze terminus position histori...

Johnson, S. G.: The NLopt nonlinear-optimization package, available at: http://ab-initio.mit.edu/nlopt, 2012.; Klok, E. and Oerlemans, J.: Deriving historical equilibrium-line altitudes from a glacier length record by linear inverse modelling, The Holocene, 13, 343–351, 2003.; Auer, I., Böhm, R., Jurkovic, A., Lipa, W., Orlik, A., Potzmann, R., Schöner, W., Ungersböck, M., Matulla, C., Briffa, K., Jones, P., Efthymiadis, D., Bru...

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Dynamic Response of Antarctic Ice Shelves to Bedrock Uncertainty :...

By: J. C. Moore; Y. Liu; S. L. Cornford; S. Sun

Description: College of Global Change and Earth Systerm Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China. Bedrock geometry is an essential boundary condition in ice sheet modelling. The shape of the bedrock on fine scales can influences ice sheet evolution, for example through the formation of pinning points that alter grounding line dynamics. Here we test the sensitivity of the BISICLES adaptive mesh ice sheet model to small amplitude height fluctuations on ...

Albrecht, T. and Levermann, A.: Fracture field for large-scale ice dynamics, J. Glaciol., 58, 165–176, doi:10.3189/2012JoG11J191, 2012.%in list; Arthern, R. J., Winebrenner, D. P., and Vaughan, D. G.: Antarctic snow accumulation mapped using polarization of 4.3 cm wavelength microwave emission, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 111, D06107, doi:10.1029/2004JD005667, 2006.%not in...

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Diffusive Equilibration of N2, O2 and Co2 Mixing Ratios in a 1.5 M...

By: T. F. Stocker; H. Fischer; J. Schwander; B. Bereiter

Description: Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. In the framework of the International Partnerships in Ice Core Sciences, one of the most important target is to retrieve an Antarctic ice core that extends over the last 1.5 million years, i.e. an ice core that enters the climate era when glacial-interglacial cycles followed the obliquity cycles of the sun. In such an ice core the annu...

Bender, M. L.: Orbital tuning chronology for the Vostok climate record supported by trapped gas composition, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 204, 275–289, 2002.; Ahn, J., Headly, M., Wahlen, M., Brook, E. J., Mayewski, P. A., and Taylor, K. C.: CO2 diffusion in polar ice: observations from naturally formed CO2 spikes in the Siple Dome (Antarctica) ice core, J. Glaciol., 54, 685–695, 2008.; Bereiter, B., Schwander, J., Lüthi, D., and Stocker, T. F.: Change ...

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Present Dynamics and Future Prognosis of a Slowly Surging Glacier ...

By: S. Pimentel; N. Roux; G. E. Flowers

Description: Department of Earth Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada. Glacier surges are a well-known example of an internal dynamic oscillation whose occurrence is not a direct response to the external climate forcing, but whose character (e.g. period, mechanism) may depend on the glacier's environmental or climate setting. We examine the dynamics of a small (~5 km2) valley glacier in the Yukon Territory of Canada, where two...

Aðalgeirsdóttir, G., Björnsson, H., Pálsson, F., and Magnússon, E.: Analyses of a surging outlet glacier of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, Ann. Glaciol., 42, 23–28, 2005.; Anonymous: Mass-balance terms, J. Glaciol., 8, 3–7, 1969.; Arendt, A. A., Echelmeyer, K. A., Harrison, W. D., Lingle, C. S., and Valentine, V. B.: Rapid wastage of Alaskan glaciers and their contribution to rising sea level, Science, 297, 382–386, 2002.; Arendt, A. A., Luthcke, S. B., Larsen, C. F., Abd...

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A New 1 Km Digital Elevation Model of Antarctica Derived from Comb...

By: J. L. Bamber; J. A. Griggs

Description: Bristol Glaciology Centre, School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. We have developed a new digital elevation model (DEM) of Antarctica from a combination of satellite radar and laser altimeter data. Here, we assess the accuracy of the DEM by comparison with airborne altimeter data from four campaigns covering a wide range of surface slopes and ice sheet regions. RMS differences varied from 4.84 m, when compared to a densely g...

Bamber, J. and Gomez-Dans, J. L.: The accuracy of digital elevation models of the Antarctic continent, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 237, 516–523, 2005.; Bamber, J. L. and Bindschadler, R. A.: An improved elevation dataset for climate and ice-sheet modelling: validation with satellite imagery, Ann. Glaciol., 25, 439–444, 1997.; Bamber, J. L., Gomez-Dans, J. L., and Griggs, J. A.: A new 1 km digital elevation model of Antarctica derived from combined radar and laser data – Par...

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Mass Change of Arctic Ice Caps and Glaciers: Implications of Regio...

By: R. Forsberg; V. R. Barletta; L. Sandberg Sørensen; J. Nilsson

Description: Department of Geodynamics, DTU Space, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark. Recent studies have determined mass changes of Arctic ice caps and glaciers from satellite altimetry. Determining regional mass balance of ice caps and glaciers using this technique is inherently difficult due to their size and geometry. Furthermore these studies have mostly relied on one method or the same types of methods to determine the ...

Radić, V. and Hock, R.: Regionally differentiated contribution of mountain glaciers and ice caps to future sea-level rise, Nat. Geosci., 4, 91–94, doi:10.1038/NGEO1052, 2011.; Shepherd, A., Ivins, E. R., Geruo, A., Barletta, V. R., Bentley, M. J., Bettadpur, S., Briggs, K. H., Bromwich, D. H., Forsberg, R., Galin, N., Horwath, M., Jacobs, S., Joughin, I., King, M. A., Lenaerts, J. T. M., Li, J., Ligtenberg, S. R. M., Luckman...

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The Stability of Grounding Lines on Retrograde Slopes : Volume 6, ...

By: G. Durand; J. Krug; L. Favier; G. H. Gudmundsson; O. Gagliardini

Description: British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Rd., Cambridge, CB3 0ET, UK. The stability of marine ice sheets grounded on beds that slope upwards in the overall direction of flow is investigated numerically in two horizontal dimensions. We give examples of stable grounding lines on such retrograde slopes illustrating that marine ice sheets are not unconditionally unstable in two-horizontal dimensions. Retrograde bed slopes at the ground...

Bamber,~J L., Riva,~R E M., Vermeersen,~B L A., and LeBrocq,~A M.: Reassessment of the potential sea-level rise from a~collapse of the West Antarctic ice sheet, Science, 324, 901–903, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.116933510.1126/science.1169335, available at: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/324/5929/901.abstract, 2009.; Baral,~D R. and Hutter,~C.: Asymptotic theories of ice sheets and ice shelves, in: Geomorphological Fluid Mechanics, edited by: Balmforth,~N J....

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Seabed Topography Beneath Larsen C Ice Shelf from Seismic Sounding...

By: K. W. Nicholls; E. C. King; A. M. Smith; K. Makinson; A. M. Brisbourne; P. R. Holland

Description: British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0ET, UK. Seismic reflection soundings of ice thickness and seabed depth were acquired on the Larsen C Ice Shelf in order to test a sub-shelf bathymetry model derived from the inversion of IceBridge gravity data. A series of lines were collected, from the Churchill Peninsula in the north to the Joerg Peninsula in the south, and also towards the ice front. Sites were selected using the ...

Kohnen, H.: Über die Beziehung zwischen seismischen Geschwindigkeiten und der Dichte in Firn und Eis, Zeitschrift fur Geophysik, 38, 925–935, 1972.; Kirchner, J. F. and Bentley, C. R.: RIGGS III: seismic short-refraction studies using an analytical curve-fitting technique, Antar. Res. S., 42, 109–126, 1990.; Cook, A. J. and Vaughan, D. G.: Overview of areal changes of the ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula over the past 50 years, The Cryosphere, 4, 77–98,

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A Sensitivity Study of Fast Outlet Glaciers to Short Timescale Cyc...

By: E. Aykutlug; T. K. Dupont

Description: Department of Earth System Science, University of California Irvine, 3200 Croul Hall, Irvine, CA 92697-3100, USA. The dynamic response of outlet glaciers on short (annual to decadal) timescales is affected by various external forcings, such as basal or oceanic conditions. Understanding the sensitivity of the dynamic response to such forcings can help assess more accurate ice volume projections. In this work, we investigate the spatiotemporal sensitivity ...

Hindmarsh, R. C. A.: Stability of ice rises and uncoupled marine ice sheets, Ann. Glaciol., 23, 94–104, 1996.; Alley, R. B., Anandakrishnan, S., Dupont, T. K., Parizek, B. R., and Pollard, D.: Effect of sedimentation on ice-sheet grounding-line stability, Science, 315, 1838–1841, doi:10.1126/science.1138396, 2007.; Amundson, J. M., Fahnestock, M., Truffer, M., Brown, J., Lúthi, M. P., and Motyka, R. J.: Ice melange dy...

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Simulating More Accurate Snow Maps for Norway with McMc Parameter ...

By: T. M. Saloranta

Description: Section for glaciers, snow and ice, Hydrology department, Norwegian water resources and energy directorate (NVE), Postboks 5091 Majorstua, 0301 Oslo, Norway. The seNorge snow model produces daily updated maps (1 km × 1 km resolution) of snow conditions for Norway which are used by the national flood, avalanche and landslide forecasting services, among others. The snow model uses gridded observations of daily temperature and precipitation as its input...

Beven, K.: A manifesto for the equifinality thesis, J. Hydrol., 320, 18–36, 2006.; Cherkauer, K. A. and Lettenmaier, D. P.: Hydrologic effects of frozen soils in the upper Mississippi River basin, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 19599–19610, 1999.; Cherkauer, K. A., Bowling, L. C., and Lettenmaier, D. P.: Variable infiltration capacity cold land process model updates, Global Planet. Change, 38, 151–159, 2003.; Clark, M. P., Hendrikx, J., Slater, A. G., Kavetski, D., Anderson, B.,...

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Area Change of Glaciers in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, 1919 to 2...

By: R. Wheate; C. Tennant; B. Menounos

Description: Natural Resources and Environmental Studies Institute, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia, V2N 4Z9, Canada. We used Interprovincial Boundary Commission Survey (IBCS) maps of the Alberta–British Columbia (BC) border (1903–1924), BC Terrain Resource Information Management (TRIM) data (1982–1987), and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) imagery (2000–2002 and 2006) to document planimetri...

Andreassen, L. M., Elvehøy, H., and Kjøllmen, B.: Using aerial photography to study glacier changes in Norway, Ann. Glaciol., 34, 343–348, 2002.; Andreassen, L. M., Paul, F., Kääb, A., and Hausberg, J. E.: Landsat-derived glacier inventory for Jotunheimen, Norway, and deduced glacier changes since the 1930s, The Cryosphere, 2, 131–145, doi:10.5194/tc-2-131-2008, 2008.; Barry, R. G.: The status of research on glaciers an...

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Effect of Uncertainty in Surface Mass Balance Elevation Feedback o...

By: F. Gillet-chaulet; O. Gagliardini; X. Fettweis; A. J. Payne; C. Ritz; T. L. Edwards; M. Perego; A. Quiquet; S. Price; M. Hoffman; J. M. Gregory; H. Goelzer; P. Huybrechts

Description: Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1SS, UK. We apply a new parameterisation of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) feedback between surface mass balance (SMB: the sum of surface accumulation and surface ablation) and surface elevation in the MAR regional climate model (Edwards et al., 2013) to projections of future climate change using five ice sheet models (ISMs). The MAR climate projections are for 2000–2...

Applegate, P. J., Kirchner, N., Stone, E. J., Keller, K., and Greve, R.: An assessment of key model parametric uncertainties in projections of Greenland Ice Sheet behavior, The Cryosphere, 6, 589–606, doi:10.5194/tc-6-589-2012, 2012.; Bamber, J. L., Hardy, R. J., and Joughin, I.: An analysis of balance velocities over the Greenland ice sheet and comparison with synthetic aperture radar interferometry, J. Glaciol., 46, 6...

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Estimating Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Mass Balance Contribution t...

By: M. Tedesco; B. Franco; J. H. Van Angelen; X. Fettweis; J. T. M. Lenaerts; H. Gallée; M. R. Van Den Broeke

Description: Department of Geography, University of Liège, Belgium. We report future projections of Surface Mass Balance (SMB) over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) obtained with the regional climate model MAR, forced by the outputs of three CMIP5 General Circulation Models (GCMs) when considering two different warming scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). The GCMs selected in this study have been chosen according to their ability to simulate the current climate ove...

Bamber, J. L., Layberry, R. L., and Gogenini, S. P.: A new ice thickness and bed data set for the Greenland ice sheet 1: measurement, data reduction, and errors, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 33773–33780, 2001.; Belleflamme, A., Fettweis, X., Lang, C., and Erpicum, M.: Current and future atmospheric circulation at 500 hPa over Greenland simulated by the CMIP3 and CMIP5 global models, Clim. Dynam., submitted, 2012.; Bengtsson, L., Koumoutsaris, S., and Hodges, K.: L...

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Heterogeneity in Glacier Response from 1973 to 2011 in the Shyok V...

By: P. Kawishwar; B. Pratap; D. P. Dobhal; D. Srivastava; R. Bhambri; T. Bolch

Description: Centre for Glaciology, Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, 33 GMS Road, Dehradun 248001, India. A glacier inventory for the Shyok and Chang Chenmo basins was generated for the year 2002 using semi-automated methods based on Landsat ETM+ and SRTM3 DEM data. Glacier change analysis was carried out for 134 glaciers based on Hexagon KH-9 (years 1973, 1974) and Landsat TM/ETM+ (1989, 2002 and 2011) images. The 2002 inventory contains 2123 glaciers with an a...

Bhambri, R. and Bolch, T.: Glacier Mapping: A Review with special reference to the Indian Himalayas, Prog. Phys. Geog., 33, 672–704, 2009.; Bhutiyani, M. R.: Mass-balance studies on the Siachen Glacier in the Nubra Valley, Karakoram Himalaya, India. J. Glaciol, 45, 112–118, 1999.; Bhambri, R., Bolch, T., Chaujar, R. K., and Kulshreshtha, S. C.: Glacier changes in the Garhwal Himalayas, India 1968–2006 based on remote sensing, J. Glaciol., 97, 543–556, 2011.; Bhambri, R.,...

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Meteorological Drivers of Ablation Processes on a Cold Glacier in ...

By: L. Nicholson; T. Mölg; S. MacDonell; J. Abermann; C. Kinnard

Description: Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas, La Serena, Chile. Meteorological and surface change measurements collected during a 2.5 yr period are used to calculate surface mass and energy balances at 5324 m a.s.l. on Guanaco Glacier, a cold-based glacier in the semi-arid Andes of Chile. Meteorological conditions are marked by extremely low vapour pressures (annual mean of 1.1 hPa), strong winds (annual mean of 10 m s−1), high shortwave r...

Gillet, S. and Cullen, N.: Atmospheric controls on summer ablation over Brewster Glacier, New Zealand, Int. J. Climatol., 31, 2033–2048, 2011.; Abermann, J., Kinnard, C., and MacDonell, S.: Albedo variations and the impact of clouds on glacier surfaces in the Chilean semi-arid Andes, J. Glaciol, in preparation, 2013.; Bintanja, R.: On the glaciological, meteorological, and climatological significance of Antarctic blue ice areas, Rev. Geophys., 37, 3, 337–359, 1999.; Bint...

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Distribution and Recent Variations of Supraglacial Lakes on Dendri...

By: C. Mayer; Q. Liu; S. Liu

Description: Key Laboratory of Mountain Surface Processes and Ecological Regulation, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, China. Supraglacial lakes are widely distributed on glaciers in the Tomur-Khan Tengri Tianshan Mountains, Central Asia. The existence and development of supraglacial lakes play an important role in the ice melting processes and also in the storage and release of glacial melt water. Here we mapped the ...

Aizen, V. B., Aizen, E. M., Dozier, J., Melack, J. M., Sexton, D. D., and Nesterov, V. N.: Glacial regime of the highest Tien Shan mountain, Pobeda-Khan Tengry massif, J. Glaciol., 43, 503–512, 1997.; Anderson, S. P., Longacre, S. A., and Kraal, E. R.: Patterns of water chemistry and discharge in the glacier-fed Kennicott River, Alaska: evidence for subglacial water storage cycles, Chem. Geol., 202, 297–312, doi:10....

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