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Influence of Meltwater Input on the Skill of Decadal Forecast of S...

By: H. Goosse; V. Zunz

Description: Université catholique de Louvain, Earth and Life Institute, Georges Lemaître Centre for Earth and Climate Research, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Recent studies have investigated the potential link between the freshwater input derived from the melting of the Antarctic ice sheet and the observed recent increase in sea ice extent in the Southern Ocean. In this study, we assess the impact of an additional freshwater flux on the trend in sea ice extent and ...

Bintanja, R., van Oldenborgh, G. J., Drijfhout, S. S., Wouters, B., and Katsman, C. A.: Important role for ocean warming and increased ice-shelf melt in Antarctic sea-ice expansion, Nat. Geosci., 6, 376–379, 2013.; Bitz, C. M. and Polvani, L. M.: Antarctic climate response to stratospheric ozone depletion in a fine resolution ocean climate model, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L20705, doi:10.1029/2012GL053393, 2012.; Bitz, C. ...

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Glacier Annual Balance Measurement, Prediction, Forecasting and Cl...

By: M. S. Pelto

Description: Nichols College Dudley, MA 01571, USA. North Cascade glacier annual balance measured on 10 glaciers from 1984–2006 yielded mean annual balance (ba) of –0.54 m/a, and –12.38 m cumulatively. This is a significant loss for glaciers that average 30–60 m in thickness, representing 20–40% of their entire volume. Two observed glaciers, Lewis Glacier and Spider Glacier, no longer exist.

The ba of North Cascade glaciers is reliably calculated based on ...

Beamish, R. J., Neville, C. E., and Cass, A. J.: Production of Fraser River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in relation to decadal-scale changes in the climate and the ocean, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 54, 543–554, 1997.; Fountain, A., Trabant, D., Brugman, M., Ommaney, C. S., and Monroe, D.: Glacier mass balance standards, EOS, 72(46), 511–514, 1991.; Bitz, C. M. and Battisti, D. S.: Interannual to decadal variability in climate and the glacier mass balance in Washin...

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Modelling Historical and Recent Mass Loss of McCall Glacier, Alask...

By: F. Pattyn; M. Nolan; C. Delcourt

Description: Laboratoire de Glaciologie, Département des Sciences de la Terre et de l'Environnement, Université Libre de Bruxelles, CP 160/03, Avenue F.D. Roosevelt 50, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Volume loss of valley glaciers is now considered to be a significant contribution to sea level rise. Understanding and identifying the processes involved in accelerated mass loss are necessary to determine their impact on the global system. Here we present results from a series ...

Blatter, H.: On the Thermal Regime of an Arctic Valley Glacier: a Study of White Glacier, Axel Heiberg Island, N.W.T., Canada, J. Glaciol., 33, 200–211, 1987.; Blatter, H. and Hutter, K.: Polythermal Conditions in Arctic Glaciers, J. Glaciol., 37, 261–269, 1991.; Huybrechts, P.: The Antarctic Ice Sheet and Environmental Change: a Three-Dimensional Modelling Study, Berichte für Polarforschung, 99, 1–241, 1992.; IPCC: Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution...

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On the Magnitude and Frequency of Karakoram Glacier Surges : Volum...

By: A. Luckman; D. J. Quincey

Description: School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK. The return periods of Karakoram glacier surges are almost entirely unknown. Here, we present evidence of an historic surge of the Khurdopin Glacier that began in the mid-1970s and peaked in 1979. Measured surface displacements reached > 5 km yr–1, two orders of magnitude faster than during quiescence and twice as large as any previously recorded velocity in the region. The Khurd...

Bhambri, R., Bolch, T., Kawishwar, P., Dobhal, D. P., Srivastava, D., and Pratap, B.: Heterogeneity in glacier response in the upper Shyok valley, northeast Karakoram, The Cryosphere, 7, 1385–1398, doi:10.5194/tc-7-1385-2013, 2013.; Copland, L., Sylvestre, T., Bishop, M. P., Shroder, J. F., Seong, Y. B., Owen, L. A., Bush, A., and Kamp, U.: Expanded and recently increased glacier surging in the Karakoram, Arct. Antarct...

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Snow Accumulation Variability in Adelie Land (East Antarctica) Der...

By: E. Le Meur; M. Fily; O. Magand; D. Verfaillie; B. Jourdain; V. Favier; L. Arnaud

Description: Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l'Environnement, UMR5183, Saint-Martin-d'Hères, France. Polar ice sheets mass balance is a timely topic intensively studied in the context of global change and sea-level rise. However, obtaining mass balance estimates in Antarctica in particular, remains difficult due to various logistical problems. In the framework of the TASTE-IDEA program, labeled as an International Polar Year project, continuo...

Agosta, C., Favier, V., Genthon, C., Gall{é}e, H., Krinner, G., Lenaerts, J., and van den Broeke, M.: A 40-year accumulation dataset for Adelie Land, Antarctica and its application for model validation, Clim. Dynam., 38, 75–86, doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1103-4, 2011.; Agosta, C., Favier, V., Genthon, C., Gallée, H., and Krinner, G.: High resolution modeling of the Antarctic surface mass balance, Part I: Model descripti...

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Global Application of a Surface Mass Balance Model Using Gridded C...

By: J. Oerlemans; R. H. Giesen

Description: Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht, Utrecht University, The Netherlands. Global applications of surface mass balance models have large uncertainties, as a result of poor climate input data and limited availability of mass balance measurements. This study addresses several possible consequences of these limitations for the modelled mass balance. This is done by applying a simple surface mass balance model that only requires air temper...

Andreassen, L. M., Van den Broeke, M. R., Giesen, R. H., and Oerlemans, J.: A 5 year record of surface energy and mass balance from the ablation zone of Storbreen, Norway, J. Glaciol., 54, 245–258, 2008.; Braithwaite, R. J. and Raper, S. C. B.: Glaciological conditions in seven contrasting regions estimated with the degree-day model, Ann. Glaciol., 46, 297–302, 2007.; Braithwaite, R. J., Zhang, Y., and Raper, S. C. B.: Temperature sensitivity of the mass balance of mount...

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Spatial and Temporal Variability of Snow Depth and Swe in a Small ...

By: M. Lehning; M. Schirmer; R. Mott; T. Grünewald

Description: WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF, 7260 Davos Dorf, Switzerland. The spatio-temporal variability of the mountain snow cover determines the avalanche danger, snow water storage, permafrost distribution and the local distribution of fauna and flora. Using a new type of terrestrial laser scanner (TLS), which is particularly suited for measurements of snow covered surfaces, snow depth, snow water equivalent (SWE) and melt rates have been mon...

Armstrong, R. L. and Brown, R.: Introduction, in: Snow and climate, edited by: Armstrong, R. L. and Brun, E., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1–11, 2008.; Anderton, S. P., White, S. M., and Alvera, B.: Evaluation of spatial variability in snow water equivalent for a high mountain catchment, Hydrol. Process., 18, 435–453, 2004.; Balk, B. and Elder, K.: Combining binary decision tree and geostatistical methods to estimate snow distribution in a mountain watershed, W...

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The Organic Carbon Pool of Permafrost Regions on the Qinghai–xizan...

By: X. Peng; B. Cao; Q. Wu; T. Zhang; G. Cheng; C. Mu; X. Zhang

Description: College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China. Presently, Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database was not involved permafrost organic carbon storage on the Qinghai–Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau (QXP). Here we reported a new estimation of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools of the permafrost regions on the QXP at different layers from the top 1 to 25 m depth using a total of 706 soil profiles. The SO...

Bockheim, J. G.: Importance of cryoturbation in redistributing organic carbon in permafrost-affected soils, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 71, 1335–1342, 2007.; Bockheim, J. B., Walker, D. A., Everett, L. R., Nelson, F. E., and Shikolmanov, N. I.: Soils and cryoturbation in moist nonacidic and acidic tundra in the Kuparuk River Basin arctic Alaska, USA, Arctic Alpine Res., 30, 166–174, 1998.; Chen, K. Z., Bowler, J. M., and Kelts, K.: Palaeoclimate evolution within the Qinghai-X...

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North Atlantic Warming and Declining Volume of Arctic Sea Ice : Vo...

By: R. Kwok; V. V. Ivanov; L. H. Smedsrud; V. A. Alexeev

Description: International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 930 Koyukuk Drive, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA. Long-term thinning of arctic sea ice over the last few decades has resulted in significant declines in the coverage of thick multi-year ice accompanied by a proportional increase in thinner first-year ice. This change is often attributed to changes in the arctic atmosphere, both in composition and large-scale circulation, and greater ...

Shimada, K., Kamoshida, T., Itoh, M., Nishino, S., Carmack, E., McLaughlin, F., Zimmermann, S., and Proshutinsky, A.: Pacific Ocean inflow: influence on catastrophic reduction of sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L08605, doi:10.1029/2005GL025624, 2006.; Steele, M. and Boyd, T.: Retreat of cold halocline in the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 10419–10435, 1998.; Steele, M., Morison, J. H., a...

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A Note on the Water Budget of Temperate Glaciers : Volume 7, Issue...

By: J. Oerlemans

Description: Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80005, 3508 TA Utrecht, the Netherlands. In this note the total dissipative melting in temperate glaciers is studied. The analysis is based on the notion that the dissipation is determined by the loss of potential energy, due to the downward motion of mass (ice, snow, meltwater and rain). A mathematical formulation of the dissipation is developed and applied to a simple...

Budd, W. F.: A first simple model of periodically self-surging glaciers, J. Glaciol., 14, 3–21, 1975.; Anderson, B., Lawson, W., Owens, I., and Goodsell, B.: Past and future mass balance of Ka Roimata o Hine Hukatere (Franz Josef Glacier), J. Glaciol., 52, 597–607, 2006.; Anderson, R. S., Anderson, S. P., MacGregor, K. R., Waddington, E. D., O'Neel, S., Riihimaki, C. A., and Loso, M. G.: Strong feedbacks between hydrology and sliding of a small alpine glacier, J. Geophys...

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Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf Melt Distributed at Kilometre Scales...

By: H. F. J. Corr; I. Joughin; A. Jenkins; A. Fleming; D. G. Vaughan; P. R. Holland; P. Dutrieux

Description: British Antarctic Survey, NERC, Cambridge, UK. By thinning and accelerating, West Antarctic ice streams are contributing about 10% of the observed global sea level rise. Much of this ice loss is from Pine Island Glacier, which has thinned since at least 1992, driven by changes in ocean heat transport beneath its ice shelf and retreat of the grounding line. Details of the processes driving this change, however, remain largely elusive, ...

Bindschadler, R., Vaughan, D. G., and Vornberger, P.: Variability of basal melt beneath the Pine Island Glacier ice shelf, West Antarctica, J. Glaciol., 57, 581–595, doi:10.3189/002214311797409802, 2011.; Casassa, G. and Whillans, I. M.: Decay of surface topography on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, Ann. Glaciol., 20, 249–253, 1994.; Corr, H. F. J., Doake, C. S. M., Jenkins, A., and Vaughan, D. G.: Investigations o...

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Century-scale Simulations of the Response of the West Antarctic Ic...

By: M. R. Van Den Broeke; S. L. Cornford; S. R. M. Ligtenberg; R. Timmermann; T. L. Edwards; D. G. Vaughan; E. G. Ng; D. F. Martin; S. R. Shannon; A. M. Le Brocq; R. M. Gladstone; H. H. Hellmer; A. J. Payne; C. Agosta; G. Krinner

Description: Centre for Polar Observation and Modelling, School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1SS, UK. We use the BISICLES adaptive mesh ice sheet model to carry out one, two, and three century simulations of the fast-flowing ice streams of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Each of the simulations begins with a geometry and velocity close to present day observations, and evolves according to variation in meteoric ice accumulation, ice shel...

Agosta, C., Favier, V., Krinner, G., Gallée, H., Fettweis, X., and Genthon, C.: High-resolution modelling of the Antarctic surface mass balance, application for the twentieth, twenty first and twenty second centuries, Clim. Dynam., 41, 3247–3260, doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1903-9, 2013.; Arthern, R. J. and Gudmundsson, G. H.: Initialization of ice-sheet forecasts viewed as an inverse Robin problem, J. Glaciol., 56, 527–...

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Glacier Changes from 1966–2009 in the Gongga Mountains, on the Sou...

By: G. Zhang; B. Pan; C. Zhang; J. Wang; H. Geng; J. Wang; B. Cao; Y. Ji

Description: Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental Systems, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China. In order to monitor the changes of the glaciers in the Gongga Mountain region on the south-eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, 74 monsoonal temperate glaciers were investigated by comparing the Chinese Glacier Inventory (CGI), recorded in the 1960s, with Landsat MSS in 1974, Landsat TM in 1989, 1994, 2005, ...

Ageta, Y. and Higuchi, K.: Estimation of mass balance components of a summer-accumulation type glacier in the Nepal Himalaya, Geogr. Ann. A, 66(3), 249–255, 1984.; Aizen, V. B., Kuzmochenok, V. A., Surazakov, A. B., and Aizen, E. M.: Glacier changes in the Central and Northern Tien Shan during the last 140 years based on surface and remote-sensing data, Ann. Glaciol., 43, 202–213, 2006.; Albert, T. H.: Evaluation of remote sensing techniques for ice-area classification a...

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Improved Arctic Sea Ice Thickness Projections Using Bias Corrected...

By: E. Hawkins; K. Haines; N. Melia

Description: Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, UK. Projections of Arctic sea ice thickness (SIT) have the potential to inform stakeholders about accessibility to the region, but are currently rather uncertain. The latest suite of CMIP5 Global Climate Models (GCMs) produce a wide range of simulated SIT in the historical period (1979–2014) and exhibit various spatial and temporal biases when compared with the Pan-Arctic Ice Ocean Modelling and...

Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, E. and Bitz, C. M.: Characteristics of Arctic sea-ice thickness variability in GCMs, J. Climate, 27, 8244–8258, doi:10.1175/jcli-d-14-00345.1, 2014.; Christensen, J. H., Boberg, F., Christensen, O. B., and Lucas-Picher, P.: On the need for bias correction of regional climate change projections of temperature and precipitation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L20709

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An Improved Cryosat-2 Sea Ice Freeboard and Thickness Retrieval Al...

By: M. Studinger; N. Galin; N. T. Kurtz

Description: Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA. We develop an empirical model capable of simulating the mean echo power cross product of CryoSat-2 SAR and SARIn mode waveforms over sea ice covered regions. The model simulations are used to show the importance of variations in the radar backscatter coefficient with incidence angle and surface roughness for the retrieval of surface elevation of both sea ice floes and...

Brown, G. S.: The average impulse response of a rough surface and its applications, IEEE T. Antenn. Propag., 25, 67–74, 1977.; Armitage, T. W. K., and Davidson, M. W. J.: Using the interferometric capabilities of the ESA CryoSat – 2 mission to improve the accuracy of sea ice freeboard retrievals, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, 52, 529–536, 2014.; Beaven, S. G., Lockhart, G. L., Gogineni, S. P., Hosseinmostafa, A. R., Jezek, K., Gow, A. J., Perovich, D. K., Fung, A. K., and Tjua...

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Temporal Variations in the Flow of a Large Antarctic Ice-stream Co...

By: G. H. Gudmundsson; J. A. M. Green; S. H. R. Rosier

Description: School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor University, Menai Bridge, LL59 5AB, UK. Observations show that the flow of Rutford Ice Stream (RIS) is strongly modulated by the ocean tides, with the strongest tidal response at the 14.77 day tidal period (Msf). This is striking because this period is absent in the tidal forcing. A number of mechanisms have been proposed to account for this effect, yet previous modeling studies have struggled to m...

A\dh\!algeirsdóttir, G., Smith, A. M., Murray, T., King, M. A., Makinson, K., Nicholls, K. W., and Behar, A. E.: Tidal influence on Rutford Ice Stream, West Antarctica: observations of surface flow and basal processes from closely-spaced GPS and passive seismic stations, J. Glaciol., 54, 715–724, doi:10.3189/002214308786570872, 2008.; Anandakrishnan, S. and Alley, R.: Tidal forcing of basal seismicity of ice stream...

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Snow Mass Decrease in the Northern Hemisphere (1979/80–2010/11) : ...

By: Q. Chen; B. Tian; P. Zhang; J. Zhou; L. Huang; N. Wang; Z. Li; J. Liu

Description: Key Laboratory of Digital Earth Science, Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 10094, China. Snow cover has a key effect on climate change and hydrological cycling, as well as water supply to a sixth of the world's population across the Northern Hemisphere. However, reliable data on trends in snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere is lacking. Snow water equivalent (SWE) is a common measure of the amount of ...

Armstrong, R. L. and Brodzik, M. J.: Recent Northern Hemisphere snow extent: a comparison of data derived from visible and microwave satellite sensors, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3673–3676, 2001.; Armstrong, R. L., Brodzik, M. J., Knowles, K., and Savoie, M.: Global Monthly EASE-Grid Snow Water Equilivalent Climatology, National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 2007.; Barnett, T. P., Adam, J. C., and Lettenmaier, D. P.: Potential impacts of a warming clima...

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The Effect of Climate Forcing on Numerical Simulations of the Cord...

By: I. Rogozhina; A. P. Stroeven; C. Khroulev; Q. Zhang; J. Seguinot

Description: Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. We present an ensemble of numerical simulations of the Cordilleran ice sheet during the Last Glacial Maximum performed with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM), applying temperature offsets to the present-day climatologies from five different datasets. Monthly mean surface air temperature and precipitation from WorldClim, the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, the ...

Amante, C. and Eakins, B. W.: ETOPO1 1 arc-minute global relief model: procedures, data sources and analysis, NOAA technical memorandum NESDIS NGDC-24, 2009.; Abe-Ouchi, A., Segawa, T., and Saito, F.: Climatic Conditions for modelling the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets throughout the ice age cycle, Clim. Past, 3, 423–438, doi:10.5194/cp-3-423-2007, 2007.; Artemieva, I. M. and Mooney, W. D.: Thermal thickness and evoluti...

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Modelling Glacier Change in the Everest Region, Nepal Himalaya : V...

By: P. Wagnon; C. Vincent; W. W. Immerzeel; S. Bajracharya; J. M. Shea

Description: International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, Nepal. In this study, we apply a glacier mass balance and ice redistribution model to simulate historical and future glacier change in the Everest region of Nepal. High-resolution temperature and precipitation fields derived from gridded APHRODITE data, and validated against independent station observations from the EVK2CNR network, are used to drive the historical model...

Ageta, Y. and Higuchi, K.: Estimation of mass balance components of a summer-accumulation type glacier in the Nepal Himalaya, Geogr. Ann. A, 66, 249–255, 1984.; Adhikari, S. and Huybrechts, P.: Numerical modelling of historical front variations and the 21st-century evolution of glacier AX010, Nepal Himalaya, Ann. Glaciol., 50, 27–34, 2009.; Ageta, Y. and Kadota, T.: Predictions of changes of glacier mass balance in the Nepal Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau: a case study of ...

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Evaluation of the Ground Surface Enthalpy Balance from Bedrock Sha...

By: M. Ramos; G. Vieira

Description: Department of Physics, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Spain. The annual evolution of the ground temperatures from Incinerador borehole in Livingston Island (South Shetlands, Antarctic) is studied. The borehole is 2.4 m deep and is located in a quartzite outcrop in the proximity of the Spanish Antarctic Station Juan Carlos I. In order to model the movement of the 0°C isotherm (velocity and maximum depth) hourly temperature profiles from: ...

Anisimov, O. A., Shiklomanov, N. I., and Nelson, F. E.: Global warming and active layer thickness: results from transient general circulation models, Global Planet. Change, 15, 61–67, 1997.; Arche, A., López-Martínez, J., and Martínez de Pisón, E.: Sedimentology of the Miers Bluff Formation, Livingston Island, South Shetland Islandsm, in: Recent Progress in Antarctic Earth Science, edited by: Yoshida, Y., Kaminuma, K., and Shiraishi, K., Tokyo, Terrapub, 357–362, 1992.; ...

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