World Library  


 
  • Cover Image

Simulating the Growth of Supra-glacial Lakes at the Western Margin...

By: A. Sundal; S. Palmer; A. A. Leeson; X. Fettweis; A. Shepherd

Description: School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK. We present a method of modelling the growth of supra-glacial lakes at the western margin of the Greenland ice sheet, based on routeing runoff estimated by a Regional Climate Model (RCM) across a digital elevation model (DEM) of the ice sheet surface. Using data acquired during the 2003 melt season, we demonstrate that the model is 18 times more likely to correctly predict the pres...

Box, J. E. and Ski, K.: Remote sounding of Greenland supraglacial melt lakes: implications for subglacial hydraulics, J. Glaciol., 53, 257–265, 2007.; Bamber, J. L., Layberry, R. L., and Gogineni, S.: A new ice thickness and bed data set for the Greenland ice sheet 1. Measurement, data reduction, and errors, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 106, 33773–33780, 2001.; Bartholomew, I. D., Nienow, P., Sole, A., Mair, D., Cowton, T., King, M. A., and Palmer, S.: Seasonal variations in...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Permafrost and Surface Energy Balance of a Polygonal Tundra Site i...

By: S. Westermann; S. Muster; K. Piel; M. Langer; J. Boike

Description: Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Telegrafenberg A43, 14473 Potsdam, Germany. Permafrost thawing is essentially determined by the surface energy balance, which potentially triggers the activation of a massive carbon source, if previously frozen organic soils are exposed to microbial decomposition. In this article, we present the first part of a comprehensive annual surface energy balance study performed at a polygonal tundra landsca...

Are, F. and Reimnitz, E.: An overview of the Lena River Delta setting: geology, tectonics, geomorphology, and hydrology, J. Coast. Res., 16, 1083–1093, 2000.; Boike, J., Roth, K., and Overduin, P.: Thermal and hydrologic dynamics of the active layer at a continuous permafrost site (Taymyr Peninsula, Siberia), Water Resour. Res., 34, 355–363, 1998.; Boike, J., Roth, K., and Ippisch, O.: Seasonal snow cover on frozen ground: Energy balance calculations of a permafrost site...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Quantifying the Jakobshavn Effect: Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland, C...

By: J. Fastook; A. Sargent; K. Purdon; J.-b. Yan; T. Hughes; J. Li; S. Gogineni

Description: School of Earth and Climate Sciences, Climate Change Institute, University of Maine, Orono, USA. The Jakobshavn Effect is a series of positive feedback mechanisms that was first observed on Jakobshavn Isbrae, which drains the west-central part of the Greenland Ice Sheet and enters Jakobshavn Isfjord at 69°10'. These mechanisms fall into two categories, reductions of ice-bed coupling beneath an ice stream due to surface meltwater reaching the bed, a...

Gagliardini, O., Durand, G., Zwinger, T., Hindmarsh, R. C. A., and Le Meur, E.: Coupling of ice-sheet melting and buttressing is a key process in ice-sheet dynamics, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L14501, doi:10.1029/2010GL043334, 2010.; Gow, A. J., Meese, D. A., Alley, R. B., Fitzpatrick, J. J., Anandakrishnan, S., Woods, G. A., and Elder, B. C.: Physical and structural properties of the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice core...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Comparison of Glaciological and Volumetric Mass Balance Measuremen...

By: W. Haeberli; T. Koblet; P. Homlund; I. Gärtner-roer; M. Zemp; P. Jansson; P. Thee

Description: Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr. 190, 8057 Zürich, Switzerland. Seasonal glaciological mass balances have been measured on Storglaciären without interruption since 1945/46. In addition, aerial surveys have been carried out on a decadal basis since the beginning of the observation program. Early studies used the resulting aerial photographs to produce glaciological maps with which the in-situ observations could be verified. ...

Ahlmann, H. W.: Projet d'un programme de recherché glaciaire, Geogr. Ann., 2(3–4), 313–320, 1929.; Ahlmann, H. W.: Scientific results of the Norwegian-Swedish Spitsbergen Expedition 1934. Part V. The Fourteenth of July Glacier, Geogr. Ann., 17, 167–218, 1935.; Ahlmann, H. W.: Scientific results of the Swedish-Icelandic investigations 1936-37-38. Chapter VII. The regime of Hoffellsjökull, Geogr. Ann., 21, 177–188, 1939.; Ahlmann, H. W.: Studies on north-east Greenland. Pa...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Monitoring Ice Break-up on the MacKenzie River Using Modis Data : ...

By: K.-k. Kang; C. Duguay; P. Muhammad

Description: Department of Geography and the Interdisciplinary Centre on Climate Change (IC3), University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada. This study involves the analysis of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Level 3 500 m snow products (MOD/MYD10A1), complemented with 250 m Level 1B data (MOD/MYD02QKM), to monitor ice cover during the break-up period on the Mackenzie River, Canada. Results from the analysis of data for 13 ice s...

Beltaos, S. and Kääb, A.: Estimating river discharge during ice breakup from near-simultaneous satellite imagery, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 98, 35–46, 2014.; Abdul Aziz, O. I. and Burn, D. H.: Trends and variability in the hydrological regime of the Mackenzie River Basin, J. Hydrol., 319, 282–294, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.06.039, 2006.; Allen, W. T. R.: Freeze-up, Break-up and Ice Thickness in Canada: Embâcle, ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Record Mass Loss from Greenland's Best-observed Local Glacier : Vo...

By: B. H. Jakobsen; W. H. Lipscomb; N. T. Knudsen; B. Hasholt; J. C. Yde; J. K. Malmros; S. H. Mernild

Description: Climate, Ocean, and Sea Ice Modeling Group, Computational Physics and Methods, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA. Warming in the Arctic during the past several decades has caused glaciers to thin and retreat, resulting in increased freshwater runoff to the ocean. Local glaciers peripheral to the ice sheet are also retreating, but few mass-balance observations are available to quantify that retreat and determine the extent ...

Allison, I., Bindoff, N. L., Bindschadler, R. A., Cox, P. M., de Noblet, N., England, M. H., Francis, J. E., Gruber, N., Haywood, A. M., Karoly, D. J., Kaser, G., Le Quéré, C., Lenton, T. M., Mann, M. E., McNeil, B. I., Pitman, A. J., Rahmstorf, S., Rignot, E., Schellnhuber, H. J., Schneider, S. H., Sherwood, S. C., Somerville, R. C. J., Steffen, K., Steig, E. J., Visbeck, M., and Weaver, A. J.: The Copenhagen Diagnosis: Updating the World on the Latest Climate Science, ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Ikaite Crystal Distribution in Arctic Winter Sea Ice and Implicati...

By: M. Cooper; M. Pućko; J. W. Deming; T. N. Papakyriakou; D. Barber; D. F. McGinnnis; K. Attard; K. Lennert; F. Wang; J. Ehn; J. Sievers; S. Rysgaard; N. X. Geilfus; R. N. Glud; D. H. Søgaard

Description: Centre for Earth Observation Science, Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada. The precipitation of ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O) in polar sea ice is critical to the efficiency of the sea ice-driven carbon pump and potentially important to the global carbon cycle, yet the spatial and temporal occurrence of ikaite within the ice is poorly known. We report unique observations of ikaite i...

Anderson, L. G., Falck, E., Jones, E. P., Jutterström, S., and Swift, J. H.: Enhanced uptake of atmospheric CO2 during freezing of seawater: a field study in Storfjorden, Svalbard, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C06004, doi:10.1029/2003JC002120, 2004.; Assur, A.: Composition of sea ice and its tensile strength, SIPRE Research Report 44, 1960.; Cai, W.-J., Chen, L., Chen, B., Gao, Z., Lee, S. H., Chen, J., Pierrot, D.,...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Feedbacks and Mechanisms Affecting the Global Sensitivity of Glaci...

By: J. M. Gregory; A. H. Jarosch; B. Marzeion

Description: Center of Climate and Cryopshere, Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics, University of Innsbruck, Austria. Mass loss by glaciers has been an important contributor to sea level rise in the past and is projected to contribute a substantial fraction of total sea level rise during the 21st century. Here, we use a model of the world's glaciers in order to quantify equilibrium sensitivities of global glacier mass to climate change, and to investigate t...

Andrews, T., Forster, P. M., Boucher, O., Bellouin, N., and Jones, A.: Precipitation, radiative forcing and global temperature change, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L14701, doi:10.1029/2010GL043991, 2010.; Bahr, D.: Global distributions of glacier properties: a stochastic scaling paradigm, Water Resour. Res., 33, 1669–1679, 1997.; Bahr, D., Meier, M., and Peckham, S.: The physical basis of glacier volume-area scaling, J. Geop...

Read More
  • Cover Image

A High-resolution Bedrock Map for the Antarctic Peninsula : Volume...

By: M. Huss; D. Farinotti

Description: Laboratory of Hydraulics, Hydrology and Glaciology (VAW), ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland. Assessing and projecting the dynamic response of glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula to changed atmospheric and oceanic forcing requires high-resolution ice thickness data as an essential geometric constraint for ice flow models. Here, we derive a complete bedrock data set for the Antarctic Peninsula north of 70° S on a 100 m grid. We calculate distributed ic...

Allen, C.: IceBridge MCoRDS L2 Ice Thickness, National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, Colorado, available at: http://nsidc.org/data/irmcr2.html (last access: 12 February 2014), 2013.; Bamber, J. L., Griggs, J. A., Hurkmans, R. T. W. L., Dowdeswell, J. A., Gogineni, S. P., Howat, I., Mouginot, J., Paden, J., Palmer, S., Rignot, E., and Steinhage, D.: A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland, The Cryosphere, 7, 499–510,

Read More
  • Cover Image

Wintertime Storage of Water in Buried Supraglacial Lakes Across th...

By: L. N. Montgomery; S. L. Hamilton; C. A. Joseph; C. Leuschen; P. Gogineni; L. S. Koenig; J. B. Turrin; J. D. Paden; K. A. Casey; S. E. Moutsafa; B. Panzer; D. J. Lampkin

Description: Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA. Surface melt over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is increasing and estimated to account for half or more of the total mass loss. Little, however, is known about the hydrologic pathways that route surface melt within the ice sheet. In this study, we present over-winter storage of water in buried supraglacial lakes as one hydrologic pathway for surface melt, referred t...

Alley, R. B., Dupont, T. K., Parizek, B. R., and Anandakrishnan, S.: Access of surface meltwater to beds of sub-freezing glaciers: preliminary insights, Ann. Glaciol., 40, 8–14, 2005.; Benson, C. S.: Stratiraphic studies in the snow and firn of the Greenland Ice sheet, SIPRE Res. Rep., US Army Corps of Engineers, 70, 1962.; Bartholomew, I., Nienow, P., Sole, A., Mair, D., Cowton, T., Palmer, S., and Wadham, J.: Supraglacial forcing of subglacial drainage in the ablation ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Modelling the 20Th and 21St Century Evolution of Hoffellsjökull Gl...

By: H. Hannesdóttir; S. Guðmundsson; H. Björnsson; T. Jóhannesson; F. Pálsson; G. Aðalgeirsdóttir; S. Þ. Sigurðsson; E. Berthier

Description: Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland, 101 Reykjavík, Iceland. The Little Ice Age maximum extent of glaciers in Iceland was reached about 1890 AD and most glaciers in the country have retreated during the 20th century. A model for the surface mass balance and the flow of glaciers is used to reconstruct the 20th century retreat history of Hoffellsjökull, a south-flowing outlet glacier of Vatnajökull, which is located close to the southeast c...

A{\dh}algeirsdóttir, G.: Flow dynamics of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, Mitteilung 181, Versuchsantalt fur Wasserbau, Hydrologie und Glaziologie der ETH Zurich-Zentrum, 178 pp, 2003.; A{\dh}algeirsdóttir, G., Jóhannesson, T., Björnsson, H., Pálsson, F., Sigur{\dh}sson, O.: Response of Hofsjökull and southern Vatnajökull, Iceland, to climate change, J. Geophys. Res.,{111}, F03001, doi:10.1029/2005JF000388, 2006.; A{\dh}al...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Freshwater Flux to Sermilik Fjord, SE Greenland : Volume 4, Issue ...

By: I. M. Howat; Y. Ahn; G. E. Liston; S. H. Mernild; K. Steffen; D. Van as; B. Hasholt; B. H. Jakobsen; B. Fog

Description: Climate, Ocean, and Sea Ice Modeling Group, Computational Physics and Methods (CCS-2), Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, USA. Fluctuations in terrestrial surface freshwater flux to Sermilik Fjord, SE Greenland, were simulated and analyzed. SnowModel, a state-of-the-art snow-evolution, snow and ice melt, and runoff modeling system, was used to simulate the temporal and spatial terrestrial runoff distribution to the fjord based on observed meteor...

ACIA: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Cambridge University Press, 1042 pp., 2005.; Allerup, P., Madsen, H., and Vejen, F.: Correction of precipitation based on off-site weather information. Atmos. Res., 53, 231–250, 2000.; Ahn, Y. and Howat, I. M.: Efficient, automated glacier surface velocity measurements from repeat images using multi-image/multi-chip (MIMC) feature tracking, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, submitted, 2010.; Allerup, P., Madsen, H., and Vejen, F.: Estimating...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Winter Speed-up of Quiescent Surge-type Glaciers in Yukon, Canada ...

By: T. Abe; M. Furuya

Description: Department of Natural History Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan. Glacier surge is known to often initiate in winter, but the mechanisms remain unclear in light of the summer speed-up at normal glaciers. We examined spatial-temporal changes in the ice velocity of surge-type glaciers near the border of Alaska and Yukon, and found significant upstream accelerations from fall to winter, regardless of surging epi...

Anderson, R. S., Molnar, P., and Kessler, M. A.: Features of glacial valley profiles simply explained, J. Geophys. Res., 111, F01004, doi:10.1029/2005JF000344, 2006.; Bartholomaus, T. C., Anderson, R. S., and Anderson, S. P.: Response of glacial basal motion transient water storage, Nat. Geosci., 1, 33–37, 2008.; Berger, A. L., Gulick, S. P. S., Spotila, J. A., Upton, P., Jaeger, J. M., Chapman, J. B., Worthington, L. A....

Read More
  • Cover Image

Antarctic Ice-mass Balance 2002 to 2011: Regional Re-analysis of G...

By: E. R. Ivins; M. R. Van Den Broeke; V. Klemann; J. L. Bamber; I. Sasgen; Z. Martinec; H. Konrad

Description: Department of Geodesy and Remote Sensing, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg A20, 14473, Potsdam, Germany. We present regional-scale mass balances for 25 drainage basins of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) from satellite observations of the Gravity and Climate Experiment (GRACE) for the years 2002–2011. Satellite gravimetry estimates of the AIS mass balance are strongly influenced by mass movement in the Earth interior caused by ...

Bassett, S., Milne, G., Bentley, M., and Huybrechts, P.: Modelling Antarctic sea-level observations to test the hypothesis of a dominant Antarctic contribution to meltwater pulse IA, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 26, 2113–2127, 2007.; Bettadpur, S.: CSR Level-2} Processing {Standards} Document for Level-2 {Product} Release {04, Univ. Texas, Austin, Rev. 3.1, GRACE 327-742 ({CSR-GR-03-03}), 2007.; Danesi, S. and Morelli, A.: Structure of the upper mantle under the Antarctic Plate...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Hoar Crystal Development and Disappearance at Dome C, Antarctica: ...

By: E. Lefebvre; L. Arnaud; M. Fily; N. Champollion; G. Picard

Description: UJF Grenoble 1 / CNRS, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l'Environnement (LGGE) UMR 5183, Grenoble, 38041, France. Hoar crystals episodically cover the snow surface in Antarctica and affect the roughness and reflective properties of the air-snow interface. However, little is known about their evolution and the processes responsible for their development and disappearance despite a probable influence on the surface mass balance and ...

Born, M. and Wolf, E.: Principles of Optics Electromagnetic. Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, Cambridge University Press, http://www.amazon.com/Principles-Optics-Electromagnetic-Propagation-Interference/dp/0521642221, 1999.; Brucker, L., Picard, G., Arnaud, L., Barnola, J.-M., Schneebeli, M., Brunjail, H., Lefebvre, E., and Fily, M.: Mod...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Glacier Volume Response Time and Its Links to Climate and Topograp...

By: R. J. Braithwaite; S. C. B. Raper

Description: Centre for Air Transport and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M1 5GD, UK. Glacier volume response time is a measure of the time taken for a glacier to adjust its geometry to a climate change. It is currently believed that the volume response time is given approximately by the ratio of glacier thickness to ablation at the glacier terminus. We propose a new conceptual model of glacier hypsometry (area-altitude relation) and ...

Anonymous: Mass-balance terms, J. Glaciol., 8(52), 3–8, 1969.; Bahr, D. B.: Width and length scaling of glaciers, J. Glaciol., 43(145), 557–562, 1997.; Bahr, D. B., Meier, M. F., and Peckham, S. D.: The physical basis of glacier volume-area scaling, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 20355–20362, 1997.; Bahr, D. B., Pfeffer, W. T., Sassolas, C., and Meier, M.: Response time of glaciers as a function of size and mass balance: 1. Theory, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 9777–9782, 1998.; Braith...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Mass Balance, Runoff and Surges of the Bering Glacier, Alaska : Vo...

By: W. Tangborn

Description: HyMet Inc., 13629 Burma Rd SW, Vashon Island, WA 98070, USA. The historical net, ablation and accumulation daily balances and runoff of the Bering Glacier, Alaska are determined for the 1951–2011 period with the PTAA (precipitation-temperature-area-altitude) model, using daily precipitation and temperature observations collected at the Cordova and Yakutat weather stations, together with the area-altitude distribution of the glacier. The mean annu...

Bjornnsson, H.: Hydrological characteristics of the drainage system beneath a surging glacier, Nature, 395, 771–774, 1998.; Berthier E.: Volume loss from Bering Glacier (Alaska), 1972–2003: comment on Muskett and others (2009), J. Glaciol., 56, 555–557, 2010.; Arendt, A. A., Echelmeyer, K. A., Harrison, W. D., Lingle, C. S., and Valentine, V. B: Rapid wastage of Alaska glaciers and their contribution to rising sea level, Science, 297, 382–386, 2002.; Beedle, M. J., Dyurg...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Geophysical Mapping of Palsa Peatland Permafrost : Volume 8, Issue...

By: P. Marklund; S. W. Lyon; Y. Sjöberg; R. Pettersson

Description: Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. Permafrost peatlands are hydrological and biogeochemical hotspots in the discontinuous permafrost zone. Non-intrusive geophysical methods offer possibility to map current permafrost spatial distributions in these environments. In this study, we estimate the depths to the permafrost table surface and base across a peatland in northern Sweden, using ground penetrating radar and electrical resistivity tomography. Seas...

Åkerman, H. J. and Johansson, M.: Thawing permafrost and thicker active layers in sub-arctic Sweden, Permafrost Periglac., 19, 279–292, doi:10.1002/ppp.626, 2008.; Alexandersson, H.: Temperature and precipitation in Sweden 1860–2001, SMHI, Norrköping, Sweden, 2002.; Arcone, S. A., Lawson, D. E., Delaney, A. J., Strasser, J. C., and Strasser, J. D.: Ground-penetrating radar reflection profiling of groundwater and bedrock in an...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Brief Communication: Newly Developing Rift in Larsen C Ice Shelf P...

By: P. R. Holland; B. Kulessa; D. Jansen; A. Cook; B. Hubbard; S. Bevan; A. J. Luckman

Description: Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, Germany. An established rift in the Larsen C Ice Shelf, formerly constrained by a suture zone containing marine ice, grew rapidly during 2014 and is likely in the near future to generate the largest calving event since the 1980s and result in a new minimum area for the ice shelf. Here we investigate the recent development of the rift, quantify the projected calving eve...

Borstad, C. P., Rignot, E., Mouginot, J., and Schodlok, M. P.: Creep deformation and buttressing capacity of damaged ice shelves: theory and application to Larsen C ice shelf, The Cryosphere, 7, 1931–1947, doi:10.5194/tc-7-1931-2013, 2013.; Cook, A. J. and Vaughan, D. G.: Overview of areal changes of the ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula over the past 50 years, The Cryosphere, 4, 77–98,

Read More
  • Cover Image

Quantifying Meltwater Refreezing Along a Transect of Sites on the ...

By: N. Humphrey; J. Harper; C. Cox

Description: Department of Geology and Geophysics, Laramie, Wyoming, USA. On the Greenland ice sheet, a significant quantity of surface melt water refreezes within the firn creating uncertainty in surface mass balance estimates. This refreezing has the potential to buffer seasonal runoff to future increases in melting, but direct measurement of the process remains difficult. We present a method for quantifying refreezing at point locations using in situ firn ...

Janssens, I. and Huybrechts, P.: The treatment of melt-water retention in mass-balance parameterizations of the Greenland ice shee, Ann. Glaciol., 31, 133–140, 2000.; Ambach, W.: Interpretation of the positive-degree-day factor by heat balance characteristics – West Greenland, Nord. Hydrol., 19, 217–224, 1988.; Benson, C.: Stratigraphic studies in the snow and firn of the Greenland Icesheet, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory – Research Report 70, US Army S...

Read More
 
1
|
2
|
3
Records: 1 - 20 of 45 - Pages: 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Nook eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.