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Tomography-based Observation of Sublimation and Snow Metamorphism ...

By: M. Schneebeli; A. Steinfeld; P. P. Ebner

Description: Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland. Snow at or close to the surface commonly undergoes temperature gradient metamorphism under advective flow, which alters its microstructure and physical properties. Time-lapse X-ray micro-tomography is applied to investigate the structural dynamics of temperature gradient snow metamorphism exposed to an advective airflow in controlled laboratory conditions. The s...

Albert, M. R.: Effects of snow and firn ventilation on sublimation rates, Ann. Glaciol., 35, 52–56, 2002.; Albert, M. R. and Hardy, J. P.: Ventilation experiments in a seasonal snow cover, in: Biogeochemistry of Seasonally Snow-Covered Catchments, IAHS Publ. 228, edited by: Tonnessen, K. A., Williams, M. W., and Tranter, M., IAHS Press, Wallingford, UK, 41–49, 1995.; Albert, M. R. and McGilvary, W. R.: Thermal effects due to air flow and vapor transport in dry snow, J. G...

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Determination of Hydrological Roughness by Means of Close Range Re...

By: F. Neugirg; M. Schindewolf; F. Haas; J. Schmidt; A. Kaiser; M. Becht

Description: Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany. The objective of the presented work was to develop a method to acquire Manning's n by creating very high-resolution surface models with structure-from-motion methods. As hydraulic roughness is an essential parameter for physically based erosion models, a practical measuring technique is valuable during field work. Data acquisition took place during several field experiments in the Lainbach valle...

Abbott, E. J. and Firestone, F. A.: Specifying surface quality: a method based on accurate measurement and comparison, ASME Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 55, 569–572, 1933.; Agisoft: Lens: http://downloads.agisoft.ru/lens/doc/en/lens.pdf, last access: 10 May 2014.; Agisoft: PhotoScan: http://downloads.agisoft.ru/pdf/photoscan-pro_1_0_0_en.p...

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Computation of Vertically Averaged Velocities in Irregular Section...

By: T. Tucciarelli; V. Sammartano; M. Sinagra; E. Spada; G. Corato

Description: Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, Aerospaziale, dei Materiali (DICAM), Università degli studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128, Palermo, Italy. Two new methods for vertically averaged velocity computation are presented, validated and compared with other available formulas. The first method derives from the well-known Huthoff algorithm, which is first shown to be dependent on the way the river cross section is discretized into several s...

Abril, J. B. and Knight, D. W.: Stage-discharge prediction for rivers in flood applying a depth-averaged model, J. Hydraul. Res., 42, 616–629, 2004.; Ackers, P.: Flow formulae for straight two-stage channels, J. Hydraul. Res., 31, 509–531, 1993.; Ansys Inc.: ANSYS CFX Reference guide, Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, USA, 2006.; Aricò, C., Nasello, C., and Tucciarelli, T.: Using unsteady water level data to estimate channel roughness and discharge hydrograph, Adv. Water Resour....

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The New Database of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost ...

By: B. K. Biskaborn; V. E. Romanovsky; D. A. Streletskiy; J.-p. Lanckman; W. L. Cable; K. Elger; H. Lantuit

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany. The Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) provides the first dynamic database associated with the Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) and the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) programs, which extensively collect permafrost temperature and active layer thickness (ALT) data from Arctic, Antarctic and mountain permafrost regions. The purpose of GTN-...

ACIA: Impacts of a Warming Arctic – Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2004.; Allard, M., Sarrazin, D., and L'Hérault, E.: Borehole monitoring temperatures in northeastern Canada, v. 1.2 (1988–2014), Nordicana D8, data set, doi:10.5885/45291SL-34F28A9491014AFD, 2014.; Bartsch, A. and Seifert, F. M.: The ESA DUE Permafrost project-A service for high latitude research, in: ...

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Fire Vs. Fossil Fuel: All Co2 Emissions Are Not Created Equal : Vo...

By: H. D. Matthews; J.-s. Landry

Description: Department of Geography, McGill University, Montréal, Canada. Fire is arguably the most influential natural disturbance in terrestrial ecosystems, thereby playing a major role in carbon exchanges and affecting many climatic processes. Nevertheless, fire has not been the subject of dedicated studies in coupled climate–carbon models with interactive vegetation until very recently. Hence, previous studies resorted to results from simulations...

Amiro, B. D., Orchansky, A. L., Barr, A. G., Black, T. A., Chambers, S. D., Chapin, F. S., Goulden, M. L., Litvak, M., Liu, H. P., McCaughey, J. H., McMilland, A., and Randerson, J. T.: The effect of post-fire stand age on the boreal forest energy balance, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 140, 41–50, 2006.; Archer, D., Eby, M., Brovkin, V., Ridgwell, A., Cao, L., Mikolajewicz, U., Caldeira, K., Matsumoto, K., Munhoven, G., Montenegro, A., and Tokos, K.: Atmospheric lifetime of fos...

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Environmental Controls on Leaf Wax Δd Ratios in Surface Peats Acro...

By: X. Wang; X. Huang; P. A. Meyers; J. Xue

Description: State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China. Leaf wax molecular and isotopic ratios are generally considered robust isotopic paleohydrologic proxies. Here we evaluate the proxy value of the molecular distributions and hydrogen isotopic compositions of long chain n-alkanes (ΔDalk) in surface peats collected from peatlands across a range of annual air temperatures...

Baas, M., Pancost, R., van Geel, B., and Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.: A comparative study of lipids in Sphagnum species, Org. Geochem., 31, 535–541, 2000.; Bingham, E. M., McClymont, E. L., Väliranta, M., Mauquoy, D., Roberts, Z., Chambers, F. M., Pancost, R. D., and Evershed, R. P.: Conservative composition of n-alkane biomarkers in Sphagnum species: implications for palaeoclimate reconstruction in ombrotrophic peat bogs, Org. Geochem., 41, 214–220, 2010.; Bow...

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The 2009–2010 Step in Atmospheric Co2 Inter-hemispheric Difference...

By: J. S. Frederiksen; R. J. Francey

Description: Earth System Assessment, CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere Flagship, Aspendale, Australia. The annual average CO2 difference between baseline data from Mauna Loa and the Southern Hemisphere increased by ∼ 0.8 Μmol mol−1 (0.8 ppm) between 2009 and 2010, a step unprecedented in over 50 years of reliable data. We find no evidence for coinciding, sufficiently large and rapid, source/sink changes. A statistical anomaly is unlikely due to the...

Ashfold, M. J., Pyle, J. A., Robinson, A. D., Meneguz, E., Nadzir, M. S. M., Phang, S. M., Samah, A. A., Ong, S., Ung, H. E., Peng, L. K., Yong, S. E., and Harris, N. R. P.: Rapid transport of East Asian pollution to the deep tropics, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3565–3573, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3565-2015, 2015.; Ciais, Ph., Reichstein, M., Viovy, N., Granier, A., Ogée, J., Allard, V., Aubinet, M., Buchmann, N., Bernhofer, C...

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Ocean Acidification Does Not Affect Magnesium Composition or Dolom...

By: N. E. Cantin; S. Uthicke; M. C. Nash; A. P. Negri

Description: Research School of Physics, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200, Australia. There are concerns that Mg-calcite crustose coralline algae (CCA), which are key reef builders on coral reefs, will be most susceptible to increased rates of dissolution under higher pCO2 and ocean acidification. Due to the higher solubility of Mg-calcite, it has been hypothesised that magnesium concentrations in CCA Mg-calcite will decrease as the oc...

Bischoff, W. D., Mackenzie, F. T., and Bishop, F. C.: Stabilities of synthetic magnesian calcites in aqueous solution: Comparison with biogenic materials, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 51, 1413–1423, 1987.; Burdett, H. L., Hennige, S. J., Francis, F. T. Y., and Kamenos, N. A.: The photosynthetic characteristics of red coralline algae, determined using pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorometry, Mar. Biol. Res., 8, 756–763, 2012.; Caragnano, A. D., Basso, D. E., Jacob, D., ...

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Reconstruction of Super-resolution Ocean PCo2 and Air–sea Fluxes o...

By: A. Paulmier; H. Yahia; I. Hernández-carrasco; V. Garçon; J. Sudre; C. Garbe; B. Dewitte; J. M. Santana-casiano; I. Dadou; M. González-dávila; S. Illig

Description: LEGOS, Laboratoire d'Études en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiales (CNES-CNRS-IRD-UPS), 31401 Toulouse, France. An accurate quantification of the role of the ocean as source/sink of greenhouse gases (GHGs) requires to access the high-resolution of the GHG air–sea flux at the interface. In this paper we present a novel method to reconstruct maps of surface ocean partial pressure of CO2 ( pCO2) and air–sea CO2 flu...

Abraham, E. and Bowen, M.: Chaotic stirring by a mesoscale surface-ocean flow, Chaos, 12, 373–381, 2002.; Abraham, E., Law, C., Boyd, P., Lavender, S., Maldonado, M., and Bowie, A.: Importance of stirring in the development of an iron-fertilized phytoplankton bloom, Nature, 407, 727–730, 2000.; Arneodo, A., Argoul, F., Bacry, E., Elezgaray, J., and J.F., M.: Ondelettes, multifractales et turbulence, Diderot Editeur, Paris, France, 1995.; Donlon, C. J., Martin, M., Stark,...

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Polar Cap Patches Observed During the Magnetic Storm of November 2...

By: T. Pedersen; C. E. Valladares; R. Sheehan

Description: Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, USA. We present multi-instrumented measurements and multi-technique analysis of polar cap patches observed early during the recovery phase of the major magnetic storm of 20 November 2003 to investigate the origin of the polar cap patches. During this event, the Qaanaaq imager observed elongated polar cap patches, some of which containing variable brightness; the Qaanaaq dig...

Basu, S., Basu, S., MacKenzie, E., Fougere, P. F., Coley, W. R., Maynard, N. C., Winningham, J. D., Sugiura, M., Hanson, W. B., and Hoegy, W. R.: Simultaneous Density and Electric Field Fluctuation Spectra Associated with Velocity Shears in the Auroral Oval, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 115–136, 1988.; Basu, S., Weber, E. J., Bullett, T. W., Keskinen, M. J., MacKenzie, E., Doherty, P., Sheehan, R., Kuenzler, H., Ning, P., and Bongiolatti, J.: Characteristics of plasma structuri...

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Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (Tes) Satellite Validations of...

By: A. Leithead; M. Luo; K. E. Cady-pereira; P. Lehr; S.-m. Li; J. Zhang; J. O. Bash; J. Liggio; D. B. Millet; R. M. Staebler; L. Zhu; K. C. Wells; J. R. Brook; M. Gordon; A. Akingunola; D. K. Henze; P. Makar; K. Hayden; C. A. McLinden; S. G. Moussa; S. Chaliyakunnel; M. W. Shephard; M. Wolde; S. L. Capps

Description: Environment Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The wealth of air quality information provided by satellite infrared observations of ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), formic acid (HCOOH), and methanol (CH3OH) is currently being explored and used for number of applications, especially at regional or global scales. These applications include air quality monitoring, trend analysis, emissions, and model evaluation. This study p...

Andreae, M. O. and Merlet, P.: Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 15, 955–966, doi:10.1029/2000GB001382, 2001.; Andreae, M. O., Andreae, T. W., Talbot, R. W., and Harriss, R. C.: Formic and acetic acid over the central Amazon region, Brazil I Dry season, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 1616–1624, doi:10.1029/JD093iD02p01616, 1988....

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An Automated Gas Chromatography Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry ...

By: A. Engel; H. Bönisch; F. Obersteiner

Description: Institute for Atmospheric and Environmental Science, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany. We present the characterization and application of a new gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry instrument (GC-TOFMS) for the quantitative analysis of halocarbons in air samples. The setup comprises three fundamental enhancements compared to our earlier work (Hoker et al., 2015): (1) full automation, (2) a mass resolving power R...

Bassford, M. R., Simmonds, P. G., and Nickless, G.: An automated system for near-real-time monitoring of trace atmospheric halocarbons, Anal. Chem., 70, 958–965, 1998.; Arnold, T., Muhle, J., Salameh, P. K., Harth, C. M., Ivy, D. J., and Weiss, R. F.: Automated measurement of nitrogen trifluoride in ambient air, Anal. Chem., 84, 4798–4804, 2012.; Bonk, T. and Humeny, A.: MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of protein and DNA, Neuroscientist, 7, 6–12, 2001.; Carpenter, L. J., Reimann, ...

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Interannual Variability of Upper Tropospheric and Lower Stratosphe...

By: Forootan; E. Awange; J. Khandu

Description: Department of Spatial Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia. Poor reliability of radiosonde observational networks across South Asia imposes serious challenges in understanding climate variability and thermodynamic structure of the upper-tropospheric and lower-stratospheric (UTLS) region. The Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) mission launched in April 2006 have overcome many observational limitation...

Anthes, R. A.: Exploring Earth's atmosphere with radio occultation: contributions to weather, climate and space weather, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 1077–1103, doi:10.5194/amt-4-1077-2011, 2011.; Anthes, R. A., Ector, D., Hunt, D. C., Kuo, Y. H., Rocken, C., Schreiner, W. S., Sokolovskiy, S. V., Syndergaard, S., Wee, T. K., Zeng, Z., Bernhardt, P. A., Dymond, K. F., Chen, Y., Liu, H., Manning, K., Randel, W. J., Trenberth,...

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The Millennium Water Vapour Drop in Chemistry-climate Model Simula...

By: S. Lossow; S. Brinkop; G. Stiller; P. Jöckel; M. Dameris; H. Garny

Description: Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. This study investigates the abrupt and severe water vapour decline in the stratosphere beginning in year 2000 (the millennium water vapour drop) and other similar stratospheric water vapour drops by means of various simulations with the state-of-the-art Chemistry-Climate Model (CCM) EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry Model). The CCM ...

Calvo, N., Garcia, R. R., Randel, W. J., and Marsh, D. R.: Dynamical mechanism for the increase in tropical upwelling in the lowermost tropical stratosphere during warm ENSO events, J. Atmos. Sci., 67, 2331–2340, 2010.; Deckert, R. and Dameris, M.: Higher tropical SSTs strengthen the tropical upwelling via deep convection, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L10813, doi:10.1029/2008GL033719, 2008.; Eichinger, R., Jöckel, P., and Lo...

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Source Attribution of Aerosol Size Distributions and Model Evaluat...

By: W. R. Leaitch; J. K. Kodros; M. J. Wheeler; S. A. Atwood; A. M. MacDonald; S. D. D'Andrea; J. Y. Ng; J. R. Pierce

Description: Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA. Remote and free tropospheric aerosols represent a large fraction of the climatic influence of aerosols; however, aerosol in these regions is less characterized than those polluted boundary layers. We evaluate aerosol size distributions predicted by the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS global chemical transport model with online aerosol microphysics using measurements from the peak of Wh...

Ahlm, L., Shakya, K. M., Russell, L. M., Schroder, J. C., Wong, J. P. S., Sjostedt, S. J., Hayden, K. L., Liggio, J., Wentzell, J. J. B., Wiebe, H. A., Mihele, C., Leaitch, W. R., and Macdonald, A. M.: Temperature-dependent accumulation mode particle and cloud nuclei concentrations from biogenic sources during WACS 2010, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3393–3407, \doi:10.5194/acp-13-3393-2013, 2013.; Bailey, R., Barrie, L. A...

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Airborne Measurements of New Particle Formation in the Free Tropos...

By: M. Ribeiro; A. Colomb; C. Rose; T. Bourianne; K. Sellegri; E. Freney; J.-m. Pichon; A. Schwarzenboeck; F. Burnet; R. Dupuy

Description: Laboratoire de Météorologie Physique CNRS UMR6016, Observatoire de Physique du Globe de Clermont-Ferrand, Université Blaise Pascal, Aubière, France. While atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) has been observed in various environments and was found to contribute significantly to the total aerosol particle concentration, the production of new particles over open seas is poorly documented in the literature. Nucleation events were detected and analysed o...

Asmi, E., Frey, A., Virkkula, A., Ehn, M., Manninen, H. E., Timonen, H., Tolonen-Kivimäki, O., Aurela, M., Hillamo, R., and Kulmala, M.: Hygroscopicity and chemical composition of Antarctic sub-micrometre aerosol particles and observations of new particle formation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 4253–4271, doi:10.5194/acp-10-4253-2010, 2010.; Birmili, W., Berresheim, H., Plass-Dülmer, C., Elste, T., Gilge, S., Wiedensohler...

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Chemical Aging of Single and Multicomponent Biomass Burning Aeroso...

By: D. A. Knopf; J. Wang; J. H. Slade; R. Thalman

Description: Institute for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA. Multiphase OH and O3 oxidation reactions with atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) can influence particle physicochemical properties including composition, morphology, and lifetime. Chemical aging of initially insoluble or low-soluble single-component OA by OH and O3...

Abbatt, J. P. D., Broekhuizen, K., and Kumal, P. P.: Cloud condensation nucleus activity of internally mixed ammonium sulfate/organic acid aerosol particles, Atmos. Environ., 39, 4767–4778, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.04.029, 2005.; Abbatt, J. P. D., Lee, A. K. Y., and Thornton, J. A.: Quantifying trace gas uptake to tropospheric aerosol: recent advances and remaining challenges, Chem. Soc. Rev., 41, 6555–6581,...

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Receptor Modelling of Both Particle Composition and Size Distribut...

By: R. M. Harrison; D. C. Green; G. W. Fuller; D. C. S. Beddows

Description: National Centre for Atmospheric Science School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK. Positive matrix factorisation (PMF) analysis was applied to PM10 chemical composition and particle number size distribution (NSD) data measured at an urban background site (North Kensington) in London, UK, for the whole of 2011 and 2012. The PMF analyses for these 2 years revealed six and fo...

Abdalmogith, S. S. and Harrison, R. M.: The use of trajectory cluster analysis to examine the long-range transport of secondary inorganic aerosol in the UK, Atmos. Environ., 39, 6686–6695, 2005.; AQEG: Particulate Matter in the UK, Air Quality Expert Group, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London, available at: http://archive....

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Semi-automated Calibration Method for Modelling of Mountain Permaf...

By: C. Lambiel; A. Marmy; M. Hoelzle; N. Salzmann; J. Noetzli; S. Kotlarski; M. Phillips; R. Delaloye; J. Rajczak; C. Hilbich; C. Hauck; B. Staub

Description: Department of Geosciences, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland. Permafrost is a widespread phenomenon in the European Alps. Many important topics such as the future evolution of permafrost related to climate change and the detection of permafrost related to potential natural hazards sites are of major concern to our society. Numerical permafrost models are the only tools which facilitate the projection of the future evolution of permafros...

Anisimov, O. A.: Potential feedback of thawing permafrost to the global climate system through methane emission, Environ. Res. Lett., 2, 045016, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/2/4/045016, 2007.; Anthony, K. M. W., Anthony, P., Grosse, G., and Chanton, J.: Geologic methane seeps along boundaries of Arctic permafrost thaw and melting glaciers, Nat. Geosci., 5, 419–426, 2012.; Arenson, L. U., Hoelzle, M., and Springman, S.: ...

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Deuterium Excess in the Atmospheric Water Vapour of a Mediterranea...

By: H. Delattre; C. Sonzogni; C. Vallet-coulomb

Description: Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, IRD, CEREGE UM34, Europôle méditerranéen de l'Arbois, 13545 Aix-en-Provence, France. Stable isotopes of water vapour represent a powerful tool for tracing atmospheric vapour origin and mixing processes. Laser spectrometry recently allowed high time-resolution measurements, but despite an increasing number of experimental studies, there is still a need for a better understanding of the isotopic signal variability at differe...

Roderick, M. L. and Farquhar, G. D.: The Cause of Decreased Pan Evaporation over the Past 50 Years, Science, 298, 1410–1411, doi:10.1126/science.1075390, 2002.; Roderick, M. L., Rotstayn, L. D., Farquhar, G. D., and Hobbins, M. T.: On the attribution of changing pan evaporation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L17403, doi:10.1029/2007GL031166, 2007.; Salati, E., Dall'Olio, A...

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