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Global Application of a Surface Mass Balance Model Using Gridded Climate Data : Volume 6, Issue 2 (16/04/2012)

By Giesen, R. H.

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Book Id: WPLBN0004022660
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 46
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Global Application of a Surface Mass Balance Model Using Gridded Climate Data : Volume 6, Issue 2 (16/04/2012)  
Author: Giesen, R. H.
Volume: Vol. 6, Issue 2
Language: English
Subject: Science, Cryosphere, Discussions
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2012
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

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Oerlemans, J., & Giesen, R. H. (2012). Global Application of a Surface Mass Balance Model Using Gridded Climate Data : Volume 6, Issue 2 (16/04/2012). Retrieved from http://nook-library.net/


Description
Description: Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht, Utrecht University, The Netherlands. Global applications of surface mass balance models have large uncertainties, as a result of poor climate input data and limited availability of mass balance measurements. This study addresses several possible consequences of these limitations for the modelled mass balance. This is done by applying a simple surface mass balance model that only requires air temperature and precipitation as input data, to glaciers in different regions. In contrast to other models used in global applications, this model separately calculates the contributions of net solar radiation and the temperature-dependent fluxes to the energy balance. We derive a relation for these temperature-dependent fluxes using automatic weather station (AWS) measurements from glaciers in different climates. With local, hourly input data, the model is well able to simulate the observed seasonal variations in the surface energy and mass balance at the AWS sites. Replacing the hourly local data by monthly gridded climate data removes summer snowfall and winter melt events and hence influences the modelled mass balance most on locations with a small seasonal temperature cycle. Representative values for the multiplication factor and vertical gradient of precipitation are determined by fitting modelled winter mass balance profiles to observations on 80 glaciers in different regions. For 72 of the 80 glaciers, the precipitation provided by the climate data set has to be multiplied with a factor above unity; the median factor is 2.55. The vertical precipitation gradient ranges from negative to positive values, with more positive values for maritime glaciers and a median value of 1.5 mm a−1 m. With calibrated precipitation, the modelled annual mass balance gradient closely resembles the observations on the 80 glaciers, the absolute values are matched by adjusting either the incoming solar radiation, the temperature-dependent flux or the air temperature. The mass balance sensitivity to changes in temperature is particularly sensitive to the chosen calibration method, emphasizing the importance of well-calibrated model parameters. We additionally calculate the mass balance sensitivity to changes in incoming solar radiation, revealing that widely observed variations in irradiance can affect the mass balance by a magnitude comparable to a 1 °C change in temperature or a 10 % change in precipitation.

Summary
Global application of a surface mass balance model using gridded climate data

Excerpt
Andreassen, L. M., Van den Broeke, M. R., Giesen, R. H., and Oerlemans, J.: A 5 year record of surface energy and mass balance from the ablation zone of Storbreen, Norway, J. Glaciol., 54, 245–258, 2008.; Braithwaite, R. J. and Raper, S. C. B.: Glaciological conditions in seven contrasting regions estimated with the degree-day model, Ann. Glaciol., 46, 297–302, 2007.; Braithwaite, R. J., Zhang, Y., and Raper, S. C. B.: Temperature sensitivity of the mass balance of mountain glaciers and ice caps as a climatological characteristic, Z. Gletscherkd. Glazialgeol., 38, 35–61, 2002.; de Woul, M. and Hock, R.: Static mass-balance sensitivity of Arctic glaciers and ice caps using a degree-day approach, Ann. Glaciol., 42, 217–224, 2005.; Giesen, R. H. and Oerlemans, J.: Response of the ice cap Hardangerjøkulen in southern Norway to the 20th and 21st century climates, The Cryosphere, 4, 191–213, doi:10.5194/tc-4-191-2010, 2010.; Giesen, R. H., Van den Broeke, M. R., Oerlemans, J., and Andreassen, L. M.: The surface energy balance in the ablation zone of {M}idtdalsbreen, a glacier in Southern {N}orway: interannual variability and the effect of clouds, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D21111, doi:10.1029/2008JD010390, 2008.; Giesen, R. H., Andreassen, L. M., van den Broeke, M. R., and Oerlemans, J.: Comparison of the meteorology and surface energy balance at Storbreen and Midtdalsbreen, two glaciers in southern Norway, The Cryosphere, 3, 57–74, doi:10.5194/tc-3-57-2009, 2009.; Iqbal, M.: An Introduction to Solar Radiation, Academic Press, New York, 1983.; Kaser, G.: Glacier-climate interaction at low latitudes, J. Glaciol., 47, 195–204, 2001.; Greuell, W. and Konzelmann, T.: Numerical modelling of the energy balance and the englacial temperature of the Greenland {Ice} Sheet. Calculations for the ETH-Camp location ({West} Greenland, 1155 m a.s.l.), Global Planet. Change, 9, 91–114, 1994.; Haeberli, W., G{ä}rtner-Roer, I., Hoelzle, M., Paul, F., and Zemp, M., eds.: Glacier Mass Balance Bulletin No. 10 (2006–2007), ICSU (WDS)/IUGG (IACS)/UNEP/UNESCO/WMO, World Glacier Monitoring Service, Zurich, Switzerland, 2009.; Krismer, T.: Local and spatial mass balance modelling on an Arctic glacier: Kongsvegen, Spitzbergen, Master's thesis, Department of Meteorology and Geophysics, University of Innsbruck, 2009.; Mölg, T. and Hardy, D. R.: Ablation and associated energy balance of a horizontal glacier surface on Kilimanjaro, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D16104, doi:10.1029/2003JD004338, 2004.; Mölg, T., Cullen, N. J., Hardy, D. R., Kaser, G., and Klok, L.: Mass balance of a slope glacier on Kilimanjaro and its sensitivity to climate, Int. J. Climatol., 28, 881–892, doi:10.1002/joc.1589, 2008.; Mölg, T., Cullen, N. J., Hardy, D. R., Winkler, M., and Kaser, G.: Quantifying climate change in the tropical midtroposphere over East Africa from glacier shrinkage on Kilimanjaro, J. Climate, 22, 4162–4181, 2009.; New, M., Lister, D., Hulme,&nb

 

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